the secret lives of common animals
Major references, further reading, citations, and notes



BOMBAUER IS, BECKER MB. 1975. JOY OF COOKING, Printed 1997 by Plume Books.

EASTMAN CR. 1915. Early Portrayals of the Opossum. The American Naturalist 49: 585-594.

FRANCO EN. 1970. Electrocardiograms of the opossum, Didelphis marsupialis, during feigned death. Journal of Mammalogy 51:     395.

HOCK RJ. 1952. The opossum in Arizona. Journal of Mammalogy 33: 464-470.

JEWETT SG, DOBYNS HW. 1929. The Virginia Opossum in Oregon. General Notes. Journal of Mammalogy 10: 351.

KRAUSE WJ, KRAUSE WA. 2004. The Opossum: its amazing story. 71 pages. Published by W Krause. Hard copy available from or read it here:

LAYNE JN, BENTON AH. 1954. Some speeds of small mammals. Journal of Mammalogy 35: 103-104.

MIKKELSEN TS ET AL. 2007. Genome of the marsupial Monodelphis domestica reveals innovation in non-coding sequences. Nature 447: 167-178.

MCMANUS JJ. 1970. Behavior of captive opossums, Didelphis marsupialis virginiana. American Midland Naturalist 84: 144-169.

MCMANUS JJ. 1974. Didelphis virginiana. Mammalian Species no. 40, 1-6. Published by the American Society of Mammalogists. 

REYNOLDS, HC. 1952. Studies on reproduction in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana virginiana). University of California Publication in Zoology 52: 223-234.

SIEGEL JM. 2005. Clues to the functions of mammalian sleep. Nature 437: 1264-1271.   

WERNER RM, VICK JA. 1976. Resistance of the Opossum (Didelphis virginiana) to envenomation by snakes of the Crotalidae family. United States Department of Defense Technical Report. Defense Technical Information Center Accession ADA03459. Edgewood Arsenal Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD. Pp. 1-13.


FOOTE AL, CRYSTAL JD. 2007. Metacognition in the rat. Current Biology 17: 551-555.

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LOUIE K, WILSON M. 2001. Temporally structured replay of awake hippocampal ensemble activity during rapid eye movement sleep. Neuron 29: 145-156.

PANKSEPP J, BURGDORF J. 2003. “Laughing” rats and the evolutionary antecedents of human joy? Physiology and Behavior 79: 533-547.

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SCHMIDT MH, VALATX JL, SCHMIDT HS, WAUQUIER A, JOUVET M. 1994. Experimental evidence of penile erections during paradoxical sleep. Neuroreport 5: 561-564.


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ANDERSON PK, HILL JL. 1965. Mus musculus: experimental induction of territory formation. Science 148: 1753-1755.

ARCHER J. 1968. The effect of strange male odor on aggressive behavior in male mice. Journal of Mammalogy 49: 572-575.

BERRY RJ. 2008. Town mouse, country mouse: adaptation and adaptability in Mus domesticus (M. musculus domesticus). Mammal Review 11: 91-136.

BOURSOT P, AUFFRAY J-C, BRITTON-DAVIDIAN J, BONHOMME F. 1993. The evolution of house mice. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 24: 119-152.

BOWERS JM, ALEXANDER BK. 1967. Mice: individual recognition by olfactory cues. Science 158: 1208-1210.

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CROWCROFT P. 1966.  Mice all Over. G.T. Foulis & Co Ltd., Great Britain. Pp.123.

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FREELAND WJ. 1981. Parasitism and behavioral dominance among male mice. Science 213: 461-462.

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GUÉNET J-L, BONHOMME F. 2003. Wild mice: an ever-increasing contribution to a popular mammalian model. TRENDS in Genetics 19: 24-31.

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KIM S-H, TSCHIRHART J, BUSKIRK SW. 2007. Reconstructing past population processes with general equilibrium models: House mice in Kern County, California, 1926-1927. Ecological Modelling 209: 235-248.

KING DP, ZHAO Y, SANGORAM AMM, WILSBACHER LE, TANAKA M, ANTOCH MP, STEEVES TDL, VITATERNA MH, KORNHAUSER JM, LOWREY PL, TUREK FW,  TAKAHASHI JS. 1997. Positional cloning of the mouse circadian clock gene. Cell    89: 641-653.

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ROBERTS SC, GOSLING LM, THORNTON EA, MCCLUNG J. 2001. Scent-marking by male mice under the risk of predation. Behavioral Ecology 12: 698-705.

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BAZIN RC, MACARTHUR RA. 1992. Thermal benefits of huddling in the Muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus). Journal of Mammalogy 73: 559-564.

FISH, EF. 1982. Function of the compressed tail of surface swimming muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus). Journal of Mammalogy 63: 591-597.

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MOHR E, HOLLISTER MP. 1933. The Muskrat, Ondatra zibethica (Linnaeus), in Europe. Journal of Mammalogy 14: 58-63.

PETERSON AW. 1950. Backward swimming of the Muskrat. Journal of Mammalogy 31:453.

SMITH WP. 1944. Mating of Muskrats. Journal of Mammalogy 25: 84-92.

STEWART RW, BIDER JR. 1977. Summer activity of muskrats in relation to weather. Journal of Wildlife Management 41: 487-499.

WILLNER GR, FELDHAMER GA, ZUCKER EE, CHAPMAN JA. 1980. Ondatra zibethicus. Mammalian Species No. 141. Published by The American Society of Mammalogists.

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CHAPMAN JA, HOCKMAN JG, OJEDA CMM. 1980. Mammalian Species No. 136. Slyvilagus floridanus. Published by the American Society of Mammalogists.

HEISINGER JF. 1962. Periodicity of reingestion in the cottontail. American Midland Naturalist 67: 441-448.

KIRAKAWA H. 2001. Coprophagy in leporids and other mammalian herbivores. Mammal Review 31: 61-80.

MARSDEN HM, CONAWAY CH. 1963. Behavior and the reproductive cycle in the Cottontail. The Journal of Wildlife Management 27: 161-170.

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DAVIES D. 2008. The ultimate ethical meal: a grey squirrel. The Guardian Archives at:,,2279357,00.html

FAHRENTHOLD DA. 2005. An Exotic Evolution. Black squirrels imported in early 1900s gain foothold. Washington Post, May 19: b01.

FITZWATER WD, FRANK WJ. 1944. Leaf nests of gray squirrel in Connecticut. Journal of Mammalogy 25: 160-170.

FOX JF. 1982. Adaptation of gray squirrel behavior to autumn germination by white oak acorns. Evolution 36: 800-809.

KOPROWSKI JL. 1992. Removal of copulatory plugs by female tree squirrels. Journal of Mammalogy 73: 572-576.

KOPROWSKI JL. 1994. Sciurus carolinensis. Mammalian Species No. 480. Published by The American Society of Mammalogists.

KOPROWSKI JL. 1994. Sciurus niger. Mammalian Species No. 479. Published by The American Society of Mammalogists.

KOPROWSKI JL. 1996. Natal philopatry, communal nesting, and kinship in fox squirrels and gray squirrels. Journal of Mammalogy 77: 1006-1016.

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LEAVER LA, HOPEWELL L, CALDWELL C, MALLARKY L. 2007. Audience effects on food caching in grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis): evidence for pilferage avoidance strategies. Animal Cognition 10: 23-27.

SMALLWOOD PD, PETERS WD. 1986. Grey squirrel food preferences: the effects of tannin and fat concentration. Ecology 67: 168-174.

STEELE MA, KNOWLES T, BRIDLE K, SIMMS EL. 1993. Tannins and partial consumption of acorns: implications for dispersal of oaks by seed predators. American Midland Naturalist 130: 229-238.

STEELE M, SMALLWOOD P. Science Daily Nov 26 1998. Researchers tackle the nutty truth on acorns and squirrels.

STENCEL JE, GHENT AW. 1987. Analyses of annual surveys of white and gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) in Olney, Illinois, 1977-1986. American Midland Naturalist 118: 251-257.

Sunday New York Times Magazine supplement. 1902. Squirrels in the city parks.    

THORINGTON RW, THORINGTON RW JR., FERREL K. 2006. Squirrels: the animal answer guide. JHU Press.

THOMPSON DC. 1978. The social system of the grey squirrel. Behaviour 64: 305-328. 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 1994. “Tree Squirrels.” Prevention and control of wildlife damage pamphlet. Co-op extension division, Institute of agricultural and natural resources University of Nebraska - Lincoln. USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Animal Damage Control, Great Plains Agricultural Council Wildlife Committee.

VAN DER MERWE M, BROWN JS, JACKSON WM. 2005. The coexistence of Fox (Sciurus niger) and Gray (S. caroliniensis) squirrels in the Chicago metropolitan area. Urban Ecosystems 8: 335-347.


KWIECINSKI GG. 1998. Marmota monax. Mammalian specis no 591. Published by the American Society of Mammalogists. 

SUMNER P. 1997. Woodchuck. North Carolina Wild Wildlife Profiles. Division of Conservation Education, North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission.

WEEKS, HP JR., KIRKPATRICK CM. 1978. Salt preferences and sodium drive phenology in fox squirrels and woodchucks. Journal of Mammalogy 59: 531-542.


BURT WH, GROSSENHEIDER RP. 1986. Mammals. Easton Press, Norwalk Connecticut.  Pp. 289.

FUJITA MS, KUNZ TH. 1984. Pipistrellus subflavus. Mammalian species no. 228. Published by The American Society of Mammalogists.

KURTA A, TERAMINO JA. 1992. Bat community structure in an urban park. Ecography 15: 257-261.

TUTTLE MD. 2005. America’s Neighborhood Bats. Second Edition. University of Texas Press, Austin. Pp. 98.

VAUGHAN TA, RYAN JM, CZAPLEWSKI NJ. 2010. Mammalogy. 5th Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning. Pp. 750.

WHITAKER JO, JR. 1980. The Audubon Field Guide Society Field Guide to North American Mammals. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. Pp. 745.

WEIR BJ, ROWLANDS IW. 1973. Reproductive strategies of Mammals. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 4: 139-163.


DARWIN, C. 1839. The Voyage of the Beagle. E-text released 2003-02-01 by Project Gutenberg. Download copyright free in the United States from this site:

DATER, EE. 1961. Tolerance among nocturnal woodland creatures. Journal of Mammalogy 42: 424-425.

LARTVIERE S, MESSIER F. 1996. Aposematic behavior in the striped skunk, Mephitis mephitis. Ethology 102: 986-992.

MUTCH GRP, ALEKSIUK M. 1977. Ecological aspects of winter dormancy in the striped skunk (
Mephitis mephitis). Canadian Journal of Zoology 55: 607-615.

NY State Department of Environmental Conservation. Striped Skunk. Available online at:

VERTS, BJ. 1967. The Biology of the Striped Skunk. University of Illinois Press, Urbana Pp 218.

WADE-SMITH J, VERTS BJ. 1982. Mephitis mephitis. Mammalian Species No. 173. Published by the American Society of Mammalogists.

WIGHT HM. 1931. Reproduction in the eastern skunk (Mephitis mephitis nigra). Journal of Mammalogy. 12: 42-47.

WOOD WF. 1990. New components in the defensive secretion of the striped skunk Mephitis mephitis. Journal of Chemical Ecology 16: 2057.

WOOD, WF. 1999. The history of skunk defensive secretion research. Chemical Educator 4: 44-50.


BERNER A, GYSEL LW. 1967. Raccoon use of large tree cavities and ground burrows. Journal of Wildlife Management 31: 706-714.

DAVIS HB. 1907. The raccoon: a study in animal intelligence. The American Journal of Psychology 18:447-489.

GEHRT SD, FRITZELL EK. 1999. Behavioural aspects of the raccoon mating system: determinants of consortship success. Animal Behaviour 57: 593-601.

GREENWOOD R. 1979. Relating residue in raccoon feces to food consumed. American Midland Naturalist 102: 191-193.

HAMILTON WJ, JR. 1936. The food and breeding habits of the raccoon. Ohio Journal of Science. 36: 131-140.

HOFFMANN CO, GOTTSCHANG JL. 1977. Numbers, distribution, and movements of a raccoon population in a suburban residential community. Journal of Mammalogy 58: 623-636.

IKEDA T, ASANO M, MATOBA Y, ABE G. 2004. Present Status of Invasive Alien Raccoon and its Impact in Japan. Global Environmental Research 8:125-131.

LONG CA, FRANK T. 1968. Morphometric variation and function in the baculum, with comments on correlation of parts. Journal of Mammalogy 49: 32-43.

LOTZE J-H, ANDERSON S.1979. Procyon lotor. Mammalian Species No. 119. Published by the American Society of Mammalogists.

MONTGOMERY GG. 1968. Pelage development of young raccoons. Journal of Mammalogy 49: 142-145.

NEWMAN C, BUESHING CD, WOLFF JO. 2005. The function of facial masks in "midguild"  carnivores. OIKOS 108: 623-633.

PRANGE S, GEHRT SD, WIGGERS EP. 2004. Influences of anthropogenic resources on raccoon (Procyon lotor) movements and spatial distribution. Journal of Mammalogy 85:483-490.

ROLLEY R, LEHMAN LE. 1992. Relationships among raccoon road-kill surveys, harvests, and traffic. Wildlife Society Bulletin 20: 313-318.

SANDERSON GC. 1950. Methods of measuring productivity in raccoons. The Journal of Wildlife Management. V14: 389-402.

SHARP WM, SHARP LH. 1956. Nocturnal movements and behavior of wild raccoons at a winter feeding station. Journal of Mammalogy 37: 170-177.

SHIRER HW, FITCH HS. 1970. Comparison from radiotracking of movements and denning habits of the raccoon, striped skunk, and opossum in northeastern Kansas. Journal of Mammalogy 51: 491-503.

STUEWER RW. 1943. Reproduction of raccoons in Michigan. Journal of Wildlife Management 7: 60-73.

TEVIS L, JR. 1947. Summer activities of California raccoons. Journal of Mammalogy 28: 323-332.

WHITNEY LF. 1931. The raccoon and its hunting. Journal of Mammalogy 12: 29-38.

WOOD JE. 1955. Notes on Reproduction and rate of increase of raccoons in the post oak region of Texas. Journal of Wildlife Management 19: 409-410.

YEAGER LE, RENNELS RG. 1943. Fur yield and autumn foods of the raccoon in Illinois river bottom lands. Journal of Wildlife Management 7: 45-60.

Red Fox

BECKOFF M. 1974. Social play in coyotes, wolves and dogs. BioScience 24(4): 225-230.

DARWIN C. 1859. Variation under domestication: causes of variability. IN The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. Barnes and Noble Classics, New York.

HARRIS S. 1978. Age determination in the Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) -- an evaluation of technique efficiency as applied to a sample of suburban foxes. Journal of Zoology 184: 91-117.

KLUNGLAND H & VÅGE ID. 2000. Molecular genetics of pigmentation in domestic animals. Current Genomics 1: 223-242.

LARIVIÈRE S & PASITSCHNIAK-ARTS M. 1996. Vulpes vulpes. Mammalian Species 537. Published by the American Society of Mammalogists.

MACDONALD DW & REYNOLDS JC. 2004. 5.3 Red fox Vulpes vulpes. IN Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs: status survey and conservation action plan. Eds. C. Sillero-Zubiri, M. Hoffmann and DW Macdonald. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Information Press, Oxford, UK. Pp. 430.

TRUT LN. 1999. Early canid domestication: the farm-fox experiment. American Scientist 87: 160-169.

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APHIS (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) Factsheet: Urban and suburban coyotes. April 2002. USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) Wildlife Services. Available online at:

BEKOFF M, DIAMOND J. 1976. Precopulatory and copulatory behavior in coyotes. Journal of Mammalogy 57: 372-375.

BECKOFF M. 1977. Canis latrans. Mammalian Species No. 79. Published by The American Society of Mammalogists.

BERCHIELLI LT. 2007. Impacts of urban coyotes on people and pets in New York state. IN Proceedings of the 12th Wildlife Damage Management Conference. Eds. Nolte DL, Arjo WM, and DH Stalman. Pp. 332-333.

BUNCH J. 2007. Suburban pet peeve: coyotes. The Denver Post website at:

BURT WH, GROSSENHEIDER RP.1976.  Mammals: Field marks of all North American species found north of Mexico. Roger Tory Peterson Field Guides. 5th edition. Easton Press, Norwalk CT. Pp. 289.

CARLSON DA, GESE EM. 2008. Reproductive biology of the coyote (Canis latrans): Integration of mating behavior, reproductive hormones, and vaginal cytology. Journal of Mammalogy 89: 654-664.

CHAMBERS, R. 2006. The Coyote in New York State. State University of New York Environmental Science and Forestry E-Center. Available online at:

GEHRT SD. Urban Coyote Ecology and Management. The Cook County, Illinois, Coyote Project. Ohio State University Bulletin 929.

GEHRT SD. 2007. Ecology of coyotes in urban landscapes. IN Proceedings of the 12th Wildlife Damage Management Conference. Eds. Nolte DL, Arjo WM, and DH Stalman.  Pp. 303-311.

LEVINE SA. 1984. The Wonders of Coyotes. Dodd, Mead, & Co. New York. Pp. 80.

SCHMIDT RH. 2007. Complexities of urban coyote management: reaching the unreachable, teaching the unteachable, and touching the untouchable. Proceedings of the 12th Wildlife Damage Management Conference. Eds. Nolte DL, Arjo WM, and DH Stalman. Pp. 362-370.

WHITAKER JO. Jr 1980. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mammals. Alfred Knopf Inc., New York. Pp. 745.


ANDERSON AE, WALLMO OC. 1984. Odocoileus hemionus. Mammalian Species No. 219. Published by The American Society of Mammalogists.

CAPELLINI C, BARTON RA, MCNAMARA P, PETERSON BT, NUNN CL. 2008. Phylogenetic analysis of the ecology and evolution of mammalian sleep. Evolution 62: 1764-1776.

CARO TM, LOMBARDO L, GOLDIZEN AW, KELLY M. 2005. Tail-flagging and other antipredator signals in white-tailed deer: new data and synthesis. Behavioral Ecology 6: 442-450.

CONOVER MR. 1997. Monetary and intangible valuation of deer in the United States. Wildlife Society Bulletin 25 Deer Overabundance (summer): 298-305.

CONOVER MR. 1997a. Wildlife management by metropolitan residents in the United States: Practices, perceptions, costs, and values. Wildlife Society Bulletin 25 Deer Overabundance (summer 1997): 306-311.

DITCHKOFF SS, LOCHMILLER RL, MASTERS RE, STARRY WR, LESLIE DM JR. 2001. Does fluctuating asymmetry of antler in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) follow patterns predicted for sexually selected traits? Proceedings of the Royal Society London B 268: 891-898.

FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION'S R&D REVIEW. Spring 2004. Mitigating the Hazard; wildlife abatement research. Quarterly Newsletter of FAA's Air Traffic Organization, Research and Development Office 3: 18-19, 22.

LIMA SL, RATTENBORG NC, LESKU JA, AMLANER CJ. 2005. Sleeping under the risk of predation. Animal Behavior 70: 723-736.

NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION SPECIAL REPORT: The secret lives of wild animals. Available online at:

PRICE JS, ALLEN S. FAUCHEUX C, ALTHNAIAN T, MOUNT JG. 2005. Deer antlers: a zoological curiosity or the key to understanding organ regeneration in mammals? Journal of Anatomy 207: 603-618.

SALWEY, MK. Amazing Antlers: fast-growing bone a seasonal phenomenon. From the Alaska Department of Fish and Game website at:

SMITH WP. 1991. Ontogeny and adaptiveness of tail-flagging behavior in white-tailed deer. The American Midland Naturalist 138: 190-200.

SMITH WP. 1991. Odocoileus virginianus. Mammalian Species No. 388. Published by The American Society of Mammalogists.

TRUETT A, CICCHETTI DV. 1976. Sleep in Mammals: ecological and constitutional constraints. Science, New Series 194: 732-734.

MULE DEER (Odocoileus hemionus). Natural Resources Conservation Service. Wildlife Habitat Management Institute, Wildlife Habitat Council. Fish and Wildlife Habitat Management Leaflet 28: 1-16.


Pied-billed Grebe

GABRIELSON IN. 1910. Pied-billed grebe notes. The Wilson Bulletin 86: 13-15.

MCALLISTER NM, STORER RW. 1963. Copulation in the pied-billed grebe. The Wilson Bulletin 75: 166-173.

MULLER MJ, STORER RW. 1999. Pied-billed grebe (Podilymbus podiceps), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.).
Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Species 410.   
NUECHTERLEIN GL, STORER RW. 1989. Reverse mounting in grebes. The Condor 91: 341-346.

ROCKWELL RB. 1910. Nesting notes on the American eared grebe and pied-billed grebe. The Condor 12: 188-193.

RYAN MR, HEAGY PA. 1980. Sunbathing behavior of the pied-billed grebe. The Wilson Bulletin 92: 409-412.

STORER RW. 1969. The behavior of the horned grebe in spring. The Condor 71: 180-205.

Great Blue Heron

CLAPP RB, KLIMKIEWICZ, MK, KENNARD, JH. 1982. Longevity records of North American birds: Gaviidae through Alcidae. Journal of Field Ornithology 53: 81-208.

KUSHLAN JA, HANCOCK JA, THELWELL D. 2005. The Herons. Oxford University Press. Pp. 433.

MOCK DW. 1976. Pair-formation displays of the great blue heron. The Wilson Bulletin 88: 185-376.

PEIFER RW. 1979. Great blue herons foraging for small mammals. The Wilson Bulletin 91: 630-631.

PRATT HM. 1977. Great blue herons interrupt nest-guarding to drink. The Condor 79: 501-502.

QUINNEY TE. 1982. Growth, diet, and mortality of nestling great blue herons. The Wilson Bulletin 94: 571-577.

TABER FW. 1939. Observations on the reproductive behavior of great blue herons. The Condor. 16: 172.

Cattle Egret

BUERKLE U, MANSELL WD. First nesting record of the cattle egret (Bulbucus ibis) in Canada. The Auk 80: 378-379.

CROSBY GT. 1972. Spread of the cattle egret in the western hemisphere. Bird-Banding 43:206-212.

FUJIOKA M, YAMAGISHI S. 1981. Extramarital and pair copulations in the cattle egret. The Auk 98: 134-144.

GRUBB TC JR. Adaptiveness of foraging in the cattle egret. The Wilson Bulletin 88: 145-148.

MCKILLIGAN NG. 1990. Promiscuity in the cattle egret (Bulbulcus ibis). The Auk 107: 334-341.

PLAGER BJ, MOCK DW. 1986. Role of sibling aggression in food distribution to nestling cattle egrets (Bulbucus ibis). The Auk 103: 768-776.

SMALLWOOD JA, WOODREY M, SMALLWOOD NJ, KETTLER MA. 1982. Foraging by cattle egrets and American kestrels at a fire’s edge. Journal of Field Ornithology 53: 171-172.

TELFAIR RC II. 2006. Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Species 113.

WEBER WJ. 1975. Notes on cattle egret breeding. The Auk 92: 111-117.

Mute Swan

CIARANCA MA, ALLIN CC, JONES GS. 1997. Mute swan (Cygnus olor), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Species 273.

CONNECTICUT STATE DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, Wildlife Division, website.  2008. Fact Sheet: Mute swan, Cygnus olor. Available online at:

GREGG I. 2010. Mute Swan History. Pennsylvania Game Commission website. Available online at:

HINDMAN LJ. Mute Swans: beautiful but controversial birds. Maryland Department of Natural Resources website. Available online at:

LIND H. 1984. The rotation display of the mute swan Cygnus olor: synchronized neighbor responses as instrument in the territorial defence strategy. Ornis Scandinavica 15: 98-104.


Canada Geese

CONOVER MR, CHASKO GC. 1985. Nuisance Canada goose problems in the eastern United States. Wildlife Society Bulletin 13: 228-233.

CONOVER MR. 1991. Herbivory by Canada geese: diet selection and effect on lawns. Ecological Applications 1: 231-236.

COKER CR, MCKINNEY F, HAYS H, BRIGGS SV, CHENG KM. 2002. Intromittent organ morphology and testis size in relation to mating system in waterfowl. The Auk 119: 403-413.

FISH FE. 1999. Energetics of swimming and flying in formation. Comments on Theoretical Biology 5: 283-304.

HUMANE SOCIETY OF THE UNITED STATES. 2004. Canada goose egg addling protocol. Pamphlet. Pp. 12.

MOWBRAY TB, ELY CR, SEDINGER JS, TROST RE. 2002. Canada goose (Branta canadensis), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Species 682.

RADESÄTER T. 1975. Biting in the triumph display of the Canada goose. The Wilson Bulletin 87: 554-555.

SMITH AE, CRAVEN SR, CURTIS PD. 1999. Managing Canada geese in urban environments. Jack Berryman Institute Publication 12, and Cornell University Cooperative Extension, Ithaca, N.Y. pp. 43.


BINGMAN VP.  1980. Novel rape avoidance in the mallard. The Wilson Bulletin 92: 409.

BURNS JT, CHENG KM, MCKINNEY F. 1980. Forced copulation in captive mallards. I. Fertilization of eggs. The Auk 97: 875-879.

CHENG KM, BURNS JT, MCKINNEY F. 1983. Forced copulation in captive mallards. III. Sperm competition. The Auk 100: 302-310.

CHENG KM, BURNS JT, MCKINNEY F. 1982. Forced copulation in captive mallards (Anas platyrhynchos): II. Temporal factors. Animal Behavior 30: 695-699.

CUNNINGHAM EJA. 2003. Female mate preferences and subsequent resistance to copulation in the mallard. Behavioral Ecology 14: 326-333.

DAVIS ES. 2002. Male reproductive tactics in the mallard, Anas platyrhynchos: social and hormonal mechanisms. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 52: 224-231.

DRILLING N, TITMAN R, MCKINNEY F. 2002. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Species 658. 

EARLY CG. 2005. Waterfowl of eastern North America. Firefly Books, Buffalo New York. Pp. 158.

GOODBURN SF. 2009. Mate guarding in the mallard Anas platyrhynchos. Ornis Scandinavica 15: 261-265.

HAILMAN JP, MCKINNEY F, BARRETT J, DERRICKSON SR, BARASH DP. 1978. Rape among mallards. Science 201: 280-282.

JOHNSON OW. 1961. Reproductive cycle of the mallard duck. The Condor 63: 351-364.

MCKINNEY F, DERRICKSON SR, MINEAU P. 1983. Forced copulation in waterfowl. Behavior 86: 250-294.

TOWNSEND CW. 1916. The courtship of the Merganser, Mallard, Black Duck, Baldpate, Wood Duck and Bufflehead. The Auk 33: 9-17.

Turkey Vulture

ALLARD HA. 1934. Voice of the turkey vulture (Cathartes arua septentrionalis). The Auk 51: 514-515.

BAGG  AM, PARKER HM. 1951. The turkey vulture in New England and eastern Canada up to 1950. The Auk 68: 315-333.

BUHNERKEMPE JE, WESTEMEIER RL. Nest-sites of turkey vultures in buildings in southeastern Illinois. The Wilson Bulletin 96: 495-496.

HATCH DE. 1970. Energy conserving and heat dissipating mechanisms of the turkey vulture. The Auk 87: 111-124.

KIRK DA, MOSSMAN MJ. 1998. Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Species 339.

LOFTIN H, CLAYTON CZ, TYSON EL. 1965. Stylized behavior in the turkey vulture’s courtship dance. The Wilson Bulletin 77: 193.

MCKELVEY M. 1965. Unusual bathing habits of the turkey vulture. The Condor 67: 265.

MCNABB FMA, MCNABB RA, PRATHER ID, CONNER RN, ADKISSON CS. 1980. Nitrogen excretion by turkey vultures. The Condor 82: 219-223.

PROCTOR NS, LYNCH PJ, PERERSON RT. 1998. Manual of Ornithology: Avian Structure and Function. Yale University Press. Pp. 352.

REA AM. 1973. Turkey vulture casting pellets. The Auk 90: 209-210.

SMITH HR, DEGRAAF RM, MILLER RS. 2002. Exhumation of food by turkey vulture. The  Journal of Raptor Research 36: 144-145.

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE. Wildlife Services. 2006. Reducing damage caused by vultures. Pamphlet available from:

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE. Wildlife Services. 2004. Managing depredation and nuisance problems caused by vultures. Pamphlet available from:

VOGEL HH JR. 1950. Observations on social behavior in turkey vultures. The Auk 67: 210-216.   

WORK TH, WOOL AJ. 1942. The nest life of the turkey vulture. The Condor  44: 149-159.

Red-tailed Hawk

ANDERSEN DE, RONGSTAD OJ, MYTTON WR. 1989. Response of nesting Red-tailed hawks to helicopter overflights. The Condor 91: 296-299.

BALLAM JM. 1984. The use of soaring by the Red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamicensis). The Auk 101: 519-524.

CONNER RN. 1974. A note on aerial courtship of Red-tailed hawks. Journal of Field Ornithology 45: 269.

DICKERMAN RW. 2003. Talon-locking in the Red-tailed hawk. Journal of Raptor Research 37: 176.

DOYLE FI. 1996. Bigamy in Red-tailed hawks in southwestern Yukon. Journal of Raptor Research 30: 38-40.

DUNNE P, SIBLEY D, SUTTON C. 1988. Hawks in Flight: the flight identification of North American raptors. Pp. 254.

HARRISON HH. 1975. A Field Guide to Birds' Nests of 285 species found breeding in the United States east of the Mississippi River. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. Pp. 257.

LEYHE JE, RITCHISON G. 2004. Perch sites and hunting behavior of Red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). Journal of Raptor Research 38: 19-25.

MARANSKY B, GOODRICH L, BILDSTEIN K. 1997. Seasonal shifts in the effects of weather on the visible migration of Red-tailed hawks at Hawk Mountain, Pennsylvania, 1992-1994. The Wilson Bulletin 109: 246-252.

ORDE CJ, HARRELL BE. 1977. Hunting techniques and predatory efficiency of nesting Red-tailed hawks. Journal of Raptor Research 11: 82-85.

Preston CR, Beane RD. 1993. Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Species 052.

STOUT WE, ANDERSON RK, PAPP JM. 1998. Urban, suburban and rural Red-tailed hawk nesting habitat and populations in southeast Wisconsin. Journal of Raptor Research 32: 221-228.

STOUT WE, TEMPLE SA, CARY JR. 2006. Landscape features of Red-tailed hawk nesting habitat in an urban/suburban environment. Journal of Raptor Research 40: 181-192.

Peregrine Falcon

CADE TJ, WHITE CM, HAUGH JR. 1968. Peregrines and pesticides in Alaska. The Condor 70: 170-178.

ENDERSON J. 2005. Peregrine Falcon: Stories of the Blue Meanie. University of Texas Press, Austin. Pp. 254.

FRANK S. 1994. City Peregrines: A Ten-year Saga of New York City Falcons. Hancock House, Blain Washington, Surrey British Columbia. Pp. 313.

HERBERT RA, HERBERT KGS. 1965. Behavior of peregrine falcons in the New York City region. The Auk 82: 62-94.

MARTELL MS, MCNICOLL JL, REDIG PT. 2000. Probable effect of delisting of the peregrine falcon on availability of urban nest sites. Journal of Raptor Research 34: 126-132.

NY CITY DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION. 2009. Peregrine Falcons in New York City. Available online at:

ROWLAND LM. 2000. From Death’s door to life in the city: The urban peregrine falcon., available online at

SANTA CRUZ PREDATORY BIRD RESEARCH GROUP at Lone Marine Lab, University of California, Santa Cruz webcam online at:

UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE. American peregrine falcon. Available online at:

WHITE CM, CLUM NJ, CADE TJ, HUNT WG. 2002. Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Species 660.

American Kestrel

BRAUNING D. 1983. Nest site selection of the American Kestrel (Falco sparverius). Journal of Raptor Research 17: 122.

COLLOPY MW. 1977. Food caching by female American Kestrels in winter. The Condor 79: 63-68.

COLLOPY MW. 1983. Diet, capture success, and mode of hunting by female American Kestrels in winter. The Condor 85: 369-371.

SMALLWOOD JA, BIRD DM. 2002. American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Species 602.

SMALLWOOD JA, WOODREY M, SMALLWOOD NJ, KETTLER MA. 1982. Foraging by cattle egrets and American kestrels at a fire’s edge. Journal of Field Ornithology 53: 171-172.

SOUTHERN WE. 1974. American Kestrel transports Norway rat. The Wilson Bulletin 86: 285.

SULLIVAN BL, KERSHNER EL, FINN SP, CONDON AM, COOPER DM, GARCELON DK. 2003. Nest-site characteristics and linear abundance of cliff-nesting American Kestrels on San Clemente Island, California. Journal of Raptor Research 37: 323-329.

Wild Turkey

BADYAEV AV, ETGES WJ & MARTIN TE. 1996. Age-biased spring dispersal in male wild turkeys. The Auk 113: 240-242.

BAILEY RW. 1956. Sex determination of adult wild turkeys by means of dropping configuration. The Journal of Wildlife Management 20: 220.

CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. The species of birds of North America from the arctic through Panama, including the West Indies and Hawaiian Islands. 7th Ed. Prepared by the Committee on Classification and Nomenclature of the American Ornithologists' Union. Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas. Available online at:

CRAWFORD RD. 1992. Introduction to Europe and diffusion of domesticated turkeys from the Americas. Archivos de Zootecnia: 41(extra): 307-314.

DALKE PD, CLARK WK JR. & KORSCHGEN LJ. 1942. Food habit trends of the wild turkey in Missouri as determined by dropping analysis. The Journal of Wildlife Management 6: 237-243.

DONOHOE RW, MCKIBBEN CE & LOWRY CB. 1968. Turkey nesting behavior. The Wilson Bulletin 80: 103-104.

EATON SW. 1992. Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Species 022.

FOSTER KR, WENSELEERS T & RATNIEKS FLW. 2005. Kin selection is the key to altruism. TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution 21: 57-60.

FUTUYMA DJ. 1998. Evolutionary Biology, 3rd Edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc. Sunderland Massachusetts. Pp. 763.

GLOVER FA & BAILEY RW. 1949. Wild turkey foods in West Virginia. The journal of wildlife management 13: 255-265.

HAMILTON WD. 1963. The evolution of altruistic behavior. The American Naturalist 97: 354-356.

KRAKAUER AH. 2005. Kin selection and cooperative courtship in wild turkeys. Nature 434: 69-72.

LEOPOLD AS. 1944. The nature of heritable wildness in turkeys. The Condor 46: 133-197.

MACNEISH RS. 1964. Ancient Mesoamerican Civilization. Science New Series 143: 531-537.

MOCK KE, THEIMER TC, RHODES OE JR, GREENBERG DL & KEIM P. 2002. Genetic variation across the historical range of the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Molecular Ecology 11: 643-657.


SCHORGER AW. 1962. Audubon's original notes on the habits of the wild turkey written for Charles Lucien Bonaparte. 1962. The Auk 79: 444-452.

American Coot

ABBOT CG. 1907. American Coot (Fulica Americana) nesting near Newark, New Jersey. The Auk 24: 436-437.

ANDERSON MG. 1974. American Coots feeding in association with Canvasbacks. The Wilson Bulletin 86: 462-463.

ARNOLD TW. 1987. Conspecific egg discrimination in American coots. The Condor 89:  675-676.

BERGEN JF, SMITH LM. 1986. Food robbery of wintering Ring-necked Ducks by American Coots. The Wilson Bulletin 98: 306-308.

BRISBIN IL JR, MOWBRAY TB. 2002. American Coot (Fulica americana), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online. Species 697a.   

BUGDEN SC, EVANS RM. 1991. Vocal responsiveness to chilling in embryonic and neonatal American Coots. The Wilson Bulletin 103: 717-720.

BURGER J. 1973. Competition between American Coots and Franklin’s Gulls for nest sites and egg predation by the coots. The Wilson Bulletin 85: 449-451.

COSENS SE. 1981. Development of vocalization in the American Coot. Canadian Journal of Zoology 59: 1921-1928.

FREDRICKSON LH. 1970. Breeding biology of American Coots in Iowa. The Wilson Bulletin 82: 445-457.

HOLLISTER N. 1919. Brooding Habit of the American Coot. The Auk 36: 102.

LESCHACK CR, HEPP GR. 1995. Kleptoparasitism of American Coots by Gadwalls and its relationship to social dominance and food abundance. The Auk 112: 429-435.

LYON BE. 2003. Egg recognition and counting reduce costs of avian conspecific brood parasitism. Nature 422: 495-499.

LYON BE, EADLE JM, HAMILTON LD. 1994. Parental choice selects for ornamental plumage in American coot chicks. Nature 371: 240-243.

RYAN MR. 1981. Evasive behavior of American Coots to kleptoparasitism by waterfowl. The Wilson Bulletin 93: 274-275.

RYDER RA. 1959. Interspecific intolerance of the American Coot in Utah. The Auk 76: 424- 442.

SKUTCH AF. 1989. Birds Asleep. University of Texas Press, Austin.


DEANE CD. 1944. The broken-wing behavior of the killdeer. The Auk 61: 243-247.

HOLLISTER N. 1897. Young of the killdeer. The Wilson Bulletin 9: 4.

JACKSON BJ, JACKSON JA. 2000. Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America: Species 517.

KULL RC JR. 1977. Color selection of nesting material by Killdeer. The Auk 94: 602-604.

PICKWELL G. 1925. The nesting of the killdeer. The Auk 42: 485-496.

SCHARDIEN BJ, JACKSON JA. 1979. Belly-soaking as a thermoregulatory mechanism in nesting killdeers. The Auk 96: 604-606.

SKUTCH AR. 1989. Birds Asleep. University of Texas Press, Austin. Pp. 219.

WARNOCK N, ORING LW. 1996. Nocturnal nest attendance of killdeers: more than meets the eye. The Auk 113: 502-504.


BELANT JL, SEAMANS TW, GABREY SW, DOLBEER RA. 1995. Abundance of gulls and other birds at landfills in Northern Ohio. American Midland Naturalist 134: 30-40.

BEAUCHAMP G. 2009. Sleeping gulls monitor the vigilance behaviour of their neighbors. Biology Letters 5: 9-11.

BRACKBILL H. 1978. Play by ring-billed gulls. Bird-banding 49: 282-283.

BURGER J, GOCHFELD M. 1979. Age differences in ring-billed gull kleptoparasitism on starlings. The Auk 96: 806-808.

BURGER J. 1981. Feeding competition between laughing gulls and herring gulls at a sanitary landfill. Condor 83: 328-335.

CONOVER MR. 1983. Recent changes in ring-billed and California gull populations in the western United States. The Wilson Bulletin 95: 362-383.

DAVIS DE. 1942. Number of eggs laid by herring gulls. The Auk 59: 549-554.

EVANS RM, WHITAKER A, WIEBE MO. 1994. Development of vocal regulation of temperature by embryos in pipped eggs of ring-billed gulls. The Auk 111: 596-604.

GALUSHA JG JR, AMLANER CJ JR. 1978. The effects of diurnal and tidal periodicities in the numbers of activities of herring gulls (Larus agentatus) in a colony. Ibis 120: 322-328.

GAMBLE JR, CRISTOL DA. 2002. Drop-catch behavior is play in herring gulls, Larus argentatus. Animal Behaviour 63: 339-345.

HACKL E, BURGER J. 1988. Factors affecting piracy in herring gulls at a New Jersey landfill. The Wilson Bulletin 100: 424-430.

HOWELL NG, DUNN J. 2007. A Reference Guide to Gulls of the Americas. Houghton Mifflin Company Boston, New York. Pp. 516.

KENT BW. 1981. Prey dropped by herring gulls (Larus argentatus) on soft sediments. The Auk 98: 350-354.

KOVACS KM, RYDER JP. 1981. Nest-site tenacity and mate fidelity in female-female pair of ring-billed gulls. The Auk 98: 625-627.

LAGRENADE M-C, MOUSSEAU P. 1983. Female-female pairs and polygynous associations in Quebec ring-billed gull colony. The Auk 100: 210-212.

LEBARON GS, HEPPNER FH. 1985. Food theft in the presence of abundant food in herring gulls. The Condor 87: 430-431.

LEE SC, EVANS RM, BUGDEN SC. 1993. Benign neglect of terminal eggs in herring gulls. The Condor 95: 507-514.

PIEROTTI RJ, GOOD TP. 1994. Herring Gull (Larus argentatus), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Species 124.

SHUGART GW, SOUTHERN WE. 1977. Close nesting, a result of polygyny in herring gulls. Bird-Banding 48: 276-277.

SHUGART GW, FITCH MA, FOX GA. 1988. Female pairing: a reproductive strategy for herring gulls. The Condor 90: 933-935.

SOUTHERN WE. 1974. Copulatory wing-flagging: a synchronizing stimulus for nesting  ring-billed gulls. Bird-banding 45: 210-216.
VERBEEK NAM. 1977. Age differences in the digging frequency of herring gulls on a dump. Condor 79: 123-125.

Mourning Dove

BASKETT TS, SAYRE MW, TOMLINSON RE. 1993. Ecology and Management of the Mourning Dove. Stackpole Books. Pp. 567.

DOLTON D, PARKER K, RAU RD. 2008. Mourning dove, white-winged dove, and band tailed pigeon population status. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Laurel Maryland, USA. Pp. 1-46.

OTIS DL, SCHULZ JH, MILLER D, MIRARCHI RE, BASKETT TS. 2008. Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Species 117.       
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, Fish and Wildlife Service, and U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau. 2006 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation. Pp. 1-174.

Rock Pigeon

Dunmore R, Davis DE. 1963. Reproductive condition of feral pigeons in winter. The Auk 80: 374.

FISHER HI. 1957. Footedness in domestic pigeons. The Wilson Bulletin 69: 170-177.

JOHSTON RF, JOHNSON SG. 1989. Nonrandom mating in feral pigeons. The Condor 91: 23-29.

JOHNSTON RF, JANIGA M. 1995. Feral pigeons. Oxford University Press New York, Oxford. Pp. 320.

JOHNSTON  RF. 1992. Rock Pigeon (Columba livia), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Species 13.

MURTON R, WESTWOOD N. 1966. The foods of the rock dove and feral pigeon. Bird Study 13: 130-146.

PROCTOR NS, LYNCH RJ. 1998. Manual of Ornithology. Yale University Press. Pp. 352.

SCHORGER AW. 1952. Introduction of the domestic pigeon. The Auk 69: 462-463.

SOL D, SANTOS DM, GARCIA J, CUADRADO M.1998. Competition for food in urban pigeons: the cost of being juvenile. The Condor 100: 298-304.

TOWNSEND CW. 1915. Notes on the rock dove (Columba domestica). The Auk 32: 306-316.

Barn Owl

CURTIS EL, MILLER RC. 1938. The sclerotic ring in North American birds. The Auk 55: 225-243.

GRUBE GE. 1950. Courtship of the Barn Owl, Tyto alba. The Auk 67: 514-515.

KNUDSEN EI, BLASDEL GG, KONISHI M. 1979. Sound localization by the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) measured with the Search Coil Technique. Journal of Comparative Physiology 133: 1-11.

KÖNIG C, WEICK F, BECKING J-H. 1999. Owls: a guide to the owls of the world. Yale University Press. Pp. 462.

MARTI CD, POOLE AF, BEVIER LR. 2005. Barn Owl (Tyto alba), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Species 001.

PAYNE RS. 1971. Acoustic location of prey by barn owls (Tyto alba). Journal of Experimental Biology 54: 535-573.

ROULIN A. 1999. Nonrandom pairing by male barn owls (Tyto alba) with respect to a female plumage trait. Behavioral Ecology 10: 688-695.

ROULIN A, RIOLS C, DIJKSTRA C, DUCREST A-L. 2001. Female plumage spottiness signals parasite resistance in the barn owl (Tyto alba). Behavioral Ecology 12: 103-110.

Chimney Swift

CINK CL, COLLINS CT. 2002. Chimney Swift (Chaetura pelagica), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Species 646.

CHAETURA: Chimney Swift Project Newsletter. 1997-2008. Available on the Driftwood Wildlife Association webstie at:

DEXTER WR. 1992. Sociality of chimney swifts (Chaetura pelagica) nesting in a colony. North American Bird Bander 17: 61-64.

HIGHT GL JR. 1953. Longevity record for chimney swift (Chaetura pelagica). Bird Banding 24: 109-110.

KYLE P, KYLE G. 2005. Chimney swifts: America’s mysterious birds above the fireplace. Texas A&M University Press. Pp. 140.

KYLE GZ, KYLE PD. 2004. Rehabilitation and conservation of chimney swifts (Chaetura pelagica). Fourth Edition. Driftwood Wildlife Association. Pp 53.

STOKES DW. 1979. A Guide to the Behavior of Common Birds. Little Brown and Company, Boston - Toronto. Pp. 336.

Belted Kingfisher

CCM. 1890. The belted kingfisher. The Wilson Bulletin 2: 6-7.

CORNWELL GW. 1963. Observations on the breeding biology and behavior of a nesting population of belted kingfisers. The Condor 65: 426-431.

DAVIS WJ. 1986. Acoustic recognition in the Belted Kingfisher: cardiac response to playback vocalizations. The Condor 88: 505-512.

FERGUS C. Belted Kingfisher. Pennsylvania Game Commission. Wildlife note 49. LDR0103. Available online at:

FISHER CC, BEZENER A. 1998. Birds of New York City. Lone Pine Publishing. Pp. 160.

HAMAS MJ. 1974. Human incursion and nesting sites of the Belted Kingfisher. The Auk  91: 835-836.

KELLY JF. BRIDGE ES, HAMAS MJ. 2009. Belted Kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Species 084.

MEYERRIECKS AJ. 1967. Egrets serving as “beaters” for Belted Kingfishers. The Wilson Bulletin 79: 236-237.

Barn Swallow

BENT AC. 1942. Life Histories of North American Birds. Smithsonian Institution United States National Museum Bulletin 179: 439-458. 

MACOUN JM, MACOUN J. 1909. Catalogue of Canadian Birds. Geological Survey of  Canada. Government Printing Bureau, Ottawa.

MARITIME MUSEUM OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. Hardtack and Marlinspikes -- Life and Work Aboard  Ship. Museum Publication, teacher handout. Pp. 2.

MCGRAW KJ. 2004. Not all red, orange, and yellow colors are carotenoid-based: The need to couple biochemical and behavioral studies of color signals in birds. Proceedings of the Indian National Academy B70: 593-598.

MØLLER AP. 1992. Sexual selection in the monogamous barn swallow (Hirundo rustica). II. Mechanisms of sexual selection. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 5: 603-624.

MØLLER AP. 1988. Infanticidal and anti-infanticidal strategies in the swallow Hirundo rustica. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 22: 365-371.

SAFRAN RJ, NEUMAN CR, MCGRAW KJ, LOVETTE IJ. 2005. Dynamic paternity allocation as a function of male plumage color in barn swallows. Science 309: 2210-2212.

TURNER AK, ROSE C. 1989. Swallows & martins: an identification guide and handbook. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Pp. 258.

Blue Jay

CHOATE EA. 1985. The Dictionary of American Bird Names, Revised Ed. Revised by RA Payner, Jr. The Harvard Common Press, Boston. Pp. 226

CLAYTON DH & VERNON JG. 1993. Common grackle anting with lime fruit and its effect on ectoparasites. The Auk 110: 951-952.

IVOR HR. 1943. Further studies of anting by birds. The Auk 60: 51-55.

JOHNSON WC, ADKISSON CS, CROW TR & DIXON MD. 1997. Nut caching by blue cays (Cyanocitta cristata L.): implications for tree demography. American Midland Naturalist 138: 357-370.

JOHNSON WC & WEBB T III. 1989. The role of blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata L.) in the postglacial dispersal of fagaceous trees in eastern North America. Journal of  Biogeography 16: 561-571.

JONES TB & KAMIL AC. 1973. Tool-making and tool-using in the Northern Blue Jay. Science, New Series, 180: 1076-1078.

KELSO L & NICE MM. 1963. A Russian contribution to anting and feather mites. Wilson Bulletin 75: 23-26.

PRUM RO, TORRES RH, WILLIAMSON S & DYCK J. 1998. Coherent light scattering by blue feather barbs. Nature 396: 28-29.

REVIS HC & WALLER DA. 2004. Bactericidal and fungicidal activity of ant chemicals on feather parasites: and evaluation of anting behavior as a method of self medication in songbirds. The Auk 121: 1262-1268.

SCARLETT TL & SMITH KG. 1991. Acorn preference of urban blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) during fall and spring in northwestern Arkansas. The Condor 93: 438.

SMITH KG. 1978. Range expansion of the blue jay into western north America. Bird Banding 49: 208-214.

WHITAKER LM. 1957. A résumé of anting, with particular reference to a captive orchard oriole. Wilson Bulletin 69: 195-262.

ZUSI RL. 1987. A feeding adaptation of the jaw articulation in New World jays (Corvidae). The Auk 104: 665-680.

American Crow

CAFFREY C. 2001. Goal-directed use of objects by American crows. The Wilson Bulletin 113: 114-115.

CAFFREY C. 2000. Tool modification and use by an American crow. The Wilson Bulletin 112: 283-284.

CRISTOL DA, SWITZER PV. 1999. Avian prey-dropping behavior. II. American crows and  walnuts. Behavioral Ecology 10: 220-226.

CRISTOL DA, SWITZER PV, JOHNSON KL, WALKE LS. 1997. Crows do not use automobiles as nutcrackers: putting an anecdote to the test. The Auk 114: 296-298.

EMLEN JT JR. 1938. Midwinter distribution of the American Crow in New York State. Ecology 19: 264–275.

GROBECKER DB, PIETSCH TW. 1978. Crows use automobiles as nutcrackers. The Auk 95: 760-761.

KILHAM L. 1984. Intra- and extrapair copulatory behavior of American Crows. The Wilson Bulletin 96: 716-717.

MAPLE T. 1974. Do crows use automobiles as nutcrackers? Western Birds 5: 97-98.
NICOLAUS LK, CASSEL JF, CARLSON RB, GUSTAVSON CR. 2007. Taste-aversion conditioning of crows to control predation on eggs. Science 220: 212-214.

VERBEEK NA, CAFFREY C. 2002. American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Species 647.   

WARD C, LOW BS. 1997. Predictors of vigilance for American crows foraging in an urban environment. The Wilson Bulletin 109: 481-489.


APEL KM, WEISE CM. 1986. The hiss-display of nestling black-capped chickadees in captivity. The Wilson Bulletin 98: 320-321.

BARLOW C. 1901. Some characteristics of the mountain chickadee. The Condor 3: 111-114.

BREWER R. 1961. Comparative notes on the life history of the Carolina Chickadee. The Wilson Bulletin 73: 348-373.

CHRISTMAN BJ, DHONDT AA. 1997. Nest predation in black-capped chickadees: how safe are cavity nests? The Auk 114: 769-773.

CLEMMONS JR, LAMBRECHTS MM. 1992. The waving display and other nest site anti-predator behavior of the black-capped chickadee. The Wilson Bulletin 104: 749-756.

DAHLSTEN DL, BRENNAN LA, MCCALLUM DA, GAUNT SL. 2002. Chestnut-backed Chickadee (Poecile rufescens), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Species 689.

DANFORTH RE. 1943. Winter insect food of chickadees. The Auk 60: 595.

DIXON KL. 1983. Black-capped chickadee performs “hiss-display” while in wire-mesh trap. 313-314.

DOOLITTLE EA. Defense note of the chickadee. The Auk 572.

FickeN MS, MCLAREN MA, HAILMAN JP. 1996. Boreal Chickadee (Poecile hudsonica), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Species 254.

FICKEN M, NOCEDAL J. 1992. Mexican Chickadee (Poecile sclateri), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Species 008.

GRUBB TC, MAUCK RA, EARNST SL. 1994. On no-chickadee zones in Midwestern North America: evidence from the Ohio breeding bird atlas and the North American breeding bird survey. The Auk 1: 191-197.

HEINRICH B, JOERG CC, MADDEN SS, SANDERS EW JR. 1997. Black-capped chickadees and red-breasted nuthatches “weigh” sunflower seeds. The Auk 114: 298-299.

HAILMAN JP, HAFTORN S. 1995. Gray-headed Chickadee (Poecile cincta), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Species196.

KERSHNER EL, BOLLINGER EK. 1999. Aggressive response of chickadees towards black capped and Carolina chickadee calls in central Illinois. The Wilson Bulletin 111: 363-367.

MCCALLUM DA, GRUNDEL, DAHLSTEN DL. 1999. Mountain Chickadee (Poecile gambeli), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Species 453.

MOSTROM AM, CURRY RL, LOHR B. 2002. Carolina Chickadee (Poecile carolinensis), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Species 636.

PIASKOWSKI VD, WEISE CM, FICKEN MS. 1991. The body ruffling display of the black capped chickadee. The Wilson Bulletin 103: 426-434.

SHERRY DF. 1989. Food storage in the Paridae. The Wilson Bulletin 101: 289-304.

SMITH CL. 1947. Recovery of chickadee bands from screech owl pellets. Journal of Field Ornithology 18: 129.

SMITH SM. 1996. The single wing-flick display of the black-capped chickadee. The Condor 98: 885-887.

SMITH, SM. 1993. Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: species 39.

STALLCAP I. 1995. Chickadees on the move…slowly. Quarterly Journal of Point Reyes Bird Observatory 104: 6-7.

House Wren

ALWORTH T. 1996. An experimental test of the function of sticks in the nests of house wrens. The Condor 98: 841-844.

BELLES-ISLES J-C, PICMAN J. 1986. House wren nest-destroying behavior. The Condor 88: 190-193.

DALES M. 1926. A house wren study. The Wilson Bulletin 38: 14-16.

HATCH ME. 1915. House wrens as I know them. The Wilson Bulletin 27: 455-458.

HILL MS. 1870. The house wren. The American Naturalist 3: 49.

JOHNSON LS. 1998. House Wren (Troglodytes aedon), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: species 380.

MCCABE RA. 1965. Nest construction by house wrens. The Condor 67: 229-234.

MCCABE RA. 1961. The selection of colored nest boxes by house wrens. The Condor 63: 322-329.

PIBRIL S, PICMAN J. 1991. Why house wrens destroy clutches of other birds: a support for the nest site competition hypothesis. The Condor 93: 184-185.

PIERCE FJ. 1922. House wren nesting in rural mail box. The Wilson Bulletin 34: 117.

QUINN MS, HOLROYD GL. 1989. Nestling and egg destruction by house wrens. The Condor 91: 206-207.

SHERMAN AR. 1925. Additional evidence against the house wren. The Wilson Bulletin 37: 129-132.

SHERMAN AR. 1925. Down with the house wren boxes. The Wilson Bulletin 37: 4-13.

WEIGLE CF. 1925. Bad habits of the house wren. The Wilson Bulletin 37: 160-163.

WS. 1925. Miss Sherman on the house wren problem. The Auk 42: 460-462.

Northern Mockingbird

BREITWISCH R, MERRITT PG, WHITESIDES GF. 1986. Parental investment by the northern mockingbird: male and female roles in feeding nestlings. The Auk 103: 152-159.

BREITWISCH R, MERRITT PG, WHITESIDES GH. 1984. Why do northern mockingbirds feed fruit to their nestlings? The Condor 86: 281-287.

DERRICKSON KC, BREITWISCH R. 1992. Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Species 007.

DERRICKSON KC. 1988. Variation in repertoire presentation in northern mockingbirds. The Condor 90: 592-606.

DERRICKSON KC. 1987. Yearly and situational changes in the estimate of repertoire size in northern mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos). The Auk 104: 198-207. 

GANDER FF. 1929. Notes on bird mimicry with special reference to the mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos). The Wilson Bulletin 41: 93-95.

STILES EW. 1982. Expansions of mockingbird and multiflora rose in the northeastern United States and Canada. American Birds 36: 358-364.

American Robin

COMMON MA. 1947. The robin nests. The Auk 64: 238-245.

HARRISON HH. 1975. A field guide to birds' nests in the United States east of the Mississippi River. The Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston. Pp. 227.

MAILLIARD J. 1930. Happenings in a robin household. The Condor 32: 77-80.

PIETZ MA, PIETZ PJ. 1987. American robin defends fruit resource against cedar waxwings. Journal of Field Ornithology 58: 442-444.

SALLABANKS R, JAMES FC. 1999. American Robin (Turdus migratorius), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from The Birds of North America Online. Species 462.

SHANTZ WE. 1944. All-day record of an incubating Robin. The Wilson Bulletin 56: 118.

SLAGSVOLD T. 1996. Dawn and dusk singing of male American robins in relation to female behavior. The Wilson Bulletin 108: 507-515.

WAUER RH. 1999. The American Robin. University of Texas Press. Austin. Pp. 93.

WEATHERHEAD PJ, MONTGOMERIE RD, MCRAE SB. 1991. Egg-laying times of American robins. The Auk 108: 965-967.

European Starling

BIRD J, ALCOCK J, ERCKMANN WJ. 1973.  Starlings stealing worms from robins. The Wilson Bulletin 85: 480-482.

BROUWER L, KOMDEUR J. 2004. Green nesting material has a function in mate attraction in the European starling. Animal Behaviour 67: 539-548.

BREWER R. 1963. Chimney perching for warmth in Starlings. The Wilson Bulletin 75: 447-449.

CABE PR. 1993. European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Species 048.

EENS M, PINXTEN R. 1996. Female European starlings increase their copulation solicitation rate when faced with the risk of polygyny. Animal Behavior 51: 1141-1147.

GWINNER H, OLTROGGE M, TROST L, NIENABER U. 2000. Green plants in starling nests: effects on nestlings. Animal Behaviour 59: 301-309.

HUTCHINS R. 1938. The invasion of Northern Mississippi by the Starlings. The Wilson Bulletin 50: 140-141.

KESSEL B. 1979. Starlings become established at Fairbanks, Alaska. Condor 81: 437-438.

KOHLER LS. 1912. The status of the European Starling in Essex County, NJ. The Wilson Bulletin 78: 44- 47.

MURPHY RK. 1981. Symbiotic interaction between Starlings and deer. The Wilson Bulletin 93: 549.

PARKS GH. 1962. A convenient method of sexing and aging the starling. Bird-Banding 33: 148-151.

PINXTEN R, EENS M. 1997. Copulation and mate-guarding patterns in polygynous European starlings. Animal Behaviour 54: 45-58.

POWER HW, KENNEDY ED, ROMAGNANO LC, LOMBARDO MP, HOFFENBERG AS, STOUFFER PC, MCGUIRE TR. 1989. The parasitism insurance hypothesis: why starlings leave space for parasitic eggs. The Condor 91: 753-765.

SANDELL MI, DIEMER M. 1999. Intraspecific brood parasitism: a strategy for floating females in the European Starling. Animal Behavior 57: 197-202.

SMITH HG, VON SCHANTZ T. 1993. Extra-pair paternity in the European starling: the effect of polygyny. The Condor 95: 1106-1015.

SOOTER CA, GOLDMAN LC. 1943. European Starling problem in eastern New Mexico and adjacent western Texas. Condor 45: 161.

TENAZA K, TENAZA R. 1966. First report of the starling nesting in San Francisco, California. Condor 68: 600.

WALKER A. 1949. The Starling reaches the Pacific. Condor 51: 271.

YOCUM CF. 1963. Starlings above the Arctic Circle in Alaska, 1962. The Auk 80: 544.

House Sparrow

BERGTOLD WH. 1921. The English sparrow (Passer domesticus) and the motor vehicle. The Auk 38: 244-250.

BRENCKLE JF. 1936. Notes on the intelligence of the house sparrow. Bird-Banding 7: 84-85.

BRIETWISCH R, BREITWISCH M. 1991. House sparrows open an automatic door. The Wilson Bulletin 103: 725-726.

BROOKE RK. 1973. House sparrows feeding at night in New York. The Auk 90: 206.

DEXTER RW. 1954. Two 13-year-old age records for the house sparrow. Bird Banding 30:182.

GAVETT AP, WAKELEY JS. 1986. Diets of house sparrows in urban and rural habitats. The Wilson Bulletin 98: 137-144.

GUILLORY HD. 1981. House sparrow flushing prey from trees and shrubs. The Wilson Bulletin 93: 554.

HOFFMAN EC. 1932. English sparrow control. Journal of Field Ornithology 87-89.

JUDD SD. 1896. Feeding habits of the English sparrow and crow. 13: 285-289.

LOETSCHER RW JR. 1953. Recent increase of the English sparrow (Passer domesticus) in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. The Auk 70: 370.

Lowther PE, Cink CL. 2006. House Sparrow (Passer domesticus), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Species 012.

MARTI CD. 1974. An unusual house sparrow roost. The Condor 76: 229.

MARTI CD. 1973. House sparrows feeding young at night. The Wilson Bulletin 85: 483.

MITCHELL HH. 1919. Concerning vernacular names of Passer domesticus. The Condor 18: 82.

NEW YORK CITY DEPARTMENT OF PARKS AND RECREATION website. Greenwood Playground -- house sparrows in New York City Parks. Available online at:

SMITH NJH. 1973. House sparrows (Passer domesticus) in the Amazon. The Condor 75: 242-243.

TATSCHL JL. 1968. Unusual nesting site for house sparrows. The Auk 85: 514.

TOWNSEND CW. 1909. Some habits of the English sparrow (Passer domesticus). The Auk 26:13-19.

Red-winged Blackbird

ORIANS GH. 1969. On the Evolution of Mating Systems in Birds and Mammals. The American Naturalist, 103: 589-603.

PRIBIL S, SEARCY WA. 2001. Experimental confirmation of the polygyny threshold model for red-winged blackbirds. Proceedings of the Royal Society 268: 1643-1646.

PRIBIL S, PICMAN J. 1996. Polygyny in the red-winged blackbird: do females prefer monogamy or polygamy? Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 38: 183-190.

WOOD HB. 1938. Nesting of red-winged blackbirds. The Wilson Bulletin 50: 143-144.

YASUKASA K, SEARCY WA. 1995. Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Species 184.   
YASUKAWA K, BUTLER LK, ENSTROM DA. 2009. Intersexual and intrasexual consequences of epaulet color in male red-winged blackbirds; an experimental approach. Animal Behaviour 77: 531-540.

Brown-headed Cowbird

CHACE JF, WALSH JJ, CRUZ A, PRATHER JW, SWANSON HM. 2002. Spatial and temporal activity patterns of the brood parasitic brown-headed cowbird at an urban/wildland interface. Landscape and Urban Planning 64: 19-190. 

CURSON DR, GOGUEN CB, MATHEWS NE. 2000. Long-distance commuting by brown headed cowbirds in New Mexico. The Auk 117: 795-799.

GRANFORS DA, PIETZ PJ, JOYAL LA. 2001. Frequency of egg and nestling destruction by female brown-headed cowbirds at grassland nests. The Auk 118: 765-769.

HOOVER JP, ROBINSON SK. 2007. Retaliatory mafia behavior by a parasitic cowbird favors host acceptance of parasitic eggs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104: 4479-4483.

JACKSON NH, ROBY DD. 1992. Fecundity and egg-laying patterns of captive yearling Brown-headed Cowbirds. Condor 94:585-589.
LOWTHER PE. 1993. Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved    from the Birds of North America Online: Species 047.

SCOTT DM, LEMON RE. 1996. Differential reproductive success of brown-headed cowbirds with northern cardinals and three other hosts. The Condor 98: 259-271.

SCOTT DM, WEATHERHEAD PJ, ANKNY CD. 1992. Egg-eating by female brown-headed cowbirds. The Condor 94: 579-584.

THOMPSON FR III. 1994. Temporal and spatial patterns of breeding brown-headed cowbirds in the Midwestern United States. The Auk 111: 979-990.

Northern Cardinal

ADNEY ET. 1884. The Cardinal Grosbeak breeding in Brooklyn, N.Y. The Auk 1: 390.

BEDDALL BG. 1963. Range expansion of the cardinal and other birds in the northeastern states. The Wilson Bulletin 75: 140-158.

BROWNELL CL. 1897. Nesting of Cardinalis cardinalis at Nyack, NY. The Auk 14: 406.

DIKINSON MG. 1948. Cardinals Bathing. The Wilson Bulletin 60: 190.

EDWARDS HM. 1932. The Cardinal's odd way of catching ants. The Wilson Bulletin 44: 235.

FAST AH. 1965. Returns on aged cardinal. Bird-banding 36: 45.

GANIER AF. 1937. Further notes on a very old cardinal. The Wilson Bulletin 49: 15-16.

GANIER AF. 1935. The cardinal now twelve years old. The Wilson Bulletin 47: 285-286.

HARVEY GF. 1903. The diary of a cardinal's nest. Auk 20: 54-57.

HALKIN SL, LINVILLE SU. 1999. Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Birds of North America Online: Species 440.

LASKEY AR. 1944. A study of the cardinal in Tennessee. The Wilson Bulletin 56: 27-44.

LINVILLE SU, BREITWISCH R. 1997. Carotenoid availability and plumage coloration in a wild population of northern cardinals. The Auk 114: 796-800.    

NICE MM. 1927. Experiences with cardinals at a feeding station in Oklahoma. The Condor 29: 101-103.

NICKELL WP. 1955. Singing and window-fighting by female Cardinals. The Wilson Bulletin 68: 159.

NICKELL WP. 1964. Returns on aged cardinal. Bird-banding 35: 41.

RITCHISON G. The singing behavior of female northern cardinals. 1986. The Condor 88: 156-159.

RITCHISON G, KLATT PH, WESTNEAT DF. 1994. Mate guarding and extra-pair paternity in northern cardinals. The Condor 96: 1055-1063.

SCOTT DM, DOW DD. 1968. Dew bathing and related behavior of the cardinal. Bird Banding 39: 227-228.

SNYDER LL. 1941. 'Anting' by the Cardinal. Auk 58: 414-415.

SUTTON GM. 1947. A female cardinal and her reflection. Bird-Banding 4: 151-154.

YAMAGUCHI A. 1998. A sexually dimorphic learned birdsong in the northern cardinal. The Condor 100: 504-511.

House Finch

ALDRICH JW, WESKE JS. 1978. Origin and evolution of the eastern house finch population. The Auk 95: 528-536.

BERGTOLD WH. 1913. A study of the house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis). The Auk 30: 40-73.

HILL GE. 1992. Proximate basis of variation in carotenoid pigmentation in male house finches. The Auk 109: 1-12.

HILL GE. 1993. House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: Species 046.

HILL GE. 1994. House finches are what they eat: a reply to Hudon. The Auk 111: 221-225.

MCGRAW KJ, HILL GE. 2000. Plumage brightness and breeding-season dominance in the house finch: a negatively correlated handicap? The Condor 102: 456-461.

SKINNER MP. 1930. House finches eating watermelon. The Condor 32: 301.

STONER EA. 1934. Sleeping posture of house finches on the nest at night. The Auk 51: 92.

STONER EA. 1947. House finches “drinking” peaches. The Auk 65: 450.

Insects and relatives

House Centipede

ACOSTA CA. 2003. The house centipede (Scutigera coleoptrata; Chilopoda): Controversy and Contradiction. Journal of the Kentucky Academy of Science. 64: 1-5.

ARTHUR W, FARROW M. 1999. The pattern of variation in centipede segment number as an example of developmental constraint in evolution. Journal of Theoretical Biology 200: 183-191.

EDGECOMBE GD, GIRIBET G. 2007. Evolutionary biology of centipedes (Myriapoda: Chilopoda). Annual Review of Entomology 52: 151-170.

LEMOLI F. 1977. Some behavioral aspects in Scutigera coleoptrata. Ateneo Parmense Acta Naturalia 13: 669-672.

LEWIS JGE. 1981. The biology of centipedes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Pp. 476.

MEYER-ROCHOW VB, MÜLLER CHG, LINSTRÖM. 2006. Spectral sensitivity of the eye of Scutigera coleptrata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Chilopoda: Scutigeromorpha: Scutigeridae). Applied Entomology and Zoology 41: 117-122.

POWELL PK. Centipedes. West Virginia University Extension Service Household Pest Management Document 9008. Available online at:


AMERICAN LYME DISEASE FOUNDATION. 2006, revised 2009. Deer Tick Ecology.  Available online at:

BLACKLEDGE TA, SCHARFF N, CODDINGTON JA, SZUTS T, WENZEL JW, Hayashi CY, Agnarsson I. 2009. Reconstructing web evolution and spider diversification in the molecular era. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106: 5229-5234.

BLACKLEDGE TA, WENZEL JW. 1999. Do stabilimenta in orb webs attract prey or defend spiders? Behavioral Ecology 10: 372-376.

CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION. 2008. Tickborne Rickettsial Diseases. Available online at:

DANIELS TJ, FALCO RC, SCHWARTZ I, VARDE S, ROBBINS RG. 1997. Deer ticks (Ixodes scapularis) and the agents of lyme disease and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in a New York City Park. Emerging Infectious Disease 3(3).  Available online at:

EISNER T, NOWICKI S. 1983. Spider web protection through visual advertisement: role of stabilimentum. Science 219: 185-187.

FOELLMER MW. 2008. Broken genitals function as mating plugs and affect sex ratios in the orb-web spider Argiope aurantia. Evolutionary Ecology Research 10: 449-462.

FOELLMER MW, FAIRBAIRN DJ . 2003 Spontaneous male death during copulation in an orb-weaving spider. Proceedings of the Royal Society Lond B Supplement 270: 183-185.

HERBERSTEIN ME, HEILING AM. 1999. Asymmetry in spider orb webs: a result of  physical constraints? Animal Behaviour 58: 1241-1246.


LORD CC. 2001, revised 2008. Brown dog tick. University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Featured Creatures. Publication EENY-221. Available online at:

MCKEON JP, BAST TF, BOSLER EM. 1082. The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Linnaeus): New distribution record for North America (Acarina: Ixodidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 90: 266-268.

NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH (NIOSH). 2008. Tick-borne diseases. Center for Disease Control (CDC). Available online at:

NESSLER SH, Uhl G, SCHNEIDER JM. 2009. Sexual cannibalism facilitates genital damage in Argiope lobata (Araneae: Araneidae). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 63: 355-362.
NEW YORK CITY DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND MENTAL HYGIENE. May 23, 2007. Reports of tick-borne illness increase in New York City. Press Release. Available online at:

OPELL BD. 1996. Functional similarities of spider webs with diverse architectures. The American Naturalist 148: 630-648.

OPELL BD, HENDRICKS ML. 2007. Adhesive recruitment by the viscous capture threads of araneoid orb-weaving spiders. The Journal of Experimental Biology 210: 553-560.

OPELL BD, LIPKEY GK, HENDRICKS ML, Vito ST. 2009. Daily and seasonal changes in the stickiness of viscous capture threads in Argiope aurantia and Argiope trifasciata orb-webs. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology  311A: 217-225.

PATNAUDE MR, MATHER TN. 2000, revised 2008. Blacklegged tick or deer tick. University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Featured Creatures. Publication EENY-143. Available online at:

SCHNEIDER JM, GILBERG S, FROMHAGE L, UHL G. 2006. Sexual conflict over copulation duration in a sexually cannibalistic spider. Animal Behaviour 71: 781-788. 

TOWNLEY MA, TILLINGHAST EK, NEEFUS CD. 2006. Changes in composition of spider orb web sticky droplets with starvation and web removal, and synthesis of sticky droplet compounds. Journal of Experimental Biology 209(Pt8): 1463-1486.

VOLLRATH F. 1991. Glycoprotein glue beneath a spider web’s aqueous coat. Naturwissenschaften 78: 557-559.

VOLLRATH F. 2006. Spider silk: thousands of nano-filaments and dollops of sticky glue. Current Biology 16: R925-927. Available online at:

WITT PN, SCARBORO MB, DANIELS R, PEAKALL DB, GAUSE R. 1977 Spider web-building in outer space: Evaluation of records from the Skylab spider experiment. American Journal of Arachnology 4: 115-124.


BARNES JK. 2005. Arthropod Museum Notes: Silverfish. University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station, Cooperative Extension Service. Arthropod Museum.

BORROR DJ, TRIPLEHORN CA, JOHNSON NF. 1989. An introduction to the study of insects. 6th. Saunders College Publishing. Pp. 875.

MEYER JR. 2005. Thysanura: silverfish, firebrats. The North Carolina State University. General Department of Entomology. General Entomology Course material. Available online at:

MILNE L, MILNE M. 1980. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. Pp. 987.

PROCTOR HC. 1998. Indirect sperm transfer in arthropods: behavioral and evolutionary trends. Annual Review of entomology 43: 153-174.

SCHALLER F. 1971. Indirect sperm transfer by soil arthropods. Annual Review of Entomology 16: 407-446.


ALEXANDER RD, MERAL GH. 1967. Seasonal and daily chirping cycles in the northern spring and fall field crickets, and Gryllus veletisG. pennsylvanicus. The Ohio Jounal of Science 67: 200 –209.

BROWN WD, SMITH AT, MOSKALIK B, GABRIEL J. 2006. Aggressive contests in house crickets: size, motivation and the information content of aggressive songs. Animal Behaviour 72: 225-233.

CADE W. 1975. Acoustiacally orienting parasitoids: fly phonotaxis to cricket song. Science 190: 1312-1313.

CADE WH, WYATT DR. 1984. Factors affecting calling behaviour in field crickets, Teleogryllus and Gryllus (age, weight, density, and parasites). Behaviour 88: 61-75.

DREES BM, JACKMAN J. 1999. Field guide to Texas insects. Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas.

GHOURI ASK, 1961. Home and distribution of the house cricket, Acheta domesicus L. Nature 192: 1000.

GRAY DA. 1997. Female house crickets, Acheta domesticus, prefer the chirps of large males. Animal Behaviour 54: 1553-1562.

GRIMALDI D, ENGEL MS. 2005. Evolution of the insects. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. pp. 772.

REINHARDT K, SIVA-JOTHY MT. 2005. An advantage for young sperm in the house cricket Acheta domesticus. The American Naturalist 165: 718-723.

SOUROUKIS K, CADE WH. 1993. Reproductive competition and selection on male traits at varying sex ratios in the field cricket, Gryllys pennsylvanicus. Behaviour 126: 45-62.

UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA. Cricket Information. Retrieved May 6 2009 from the Center for Insect Science Education Outreach. Available online at:

WALKER TJ 2004. Crickets. IN Singing insects of North America. Available online at:


BROWN VK. 1983. Grasshoppers. Naturalists’ Handbooks 2. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 65.

PFADT RE. 2002. Field Guide to Common Western Grasshoppers. Third edition. University of Wyoming Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 912. Available online at:

KIRK K, BOMAR CR. 2005. Guide to the grasshoppers of Wisconsin. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Integrated Science Services. Pp. 14. Available online at:

BLAND RG. 2003. The Orthoptera of Michigan: Biology, Keys, and Descriptions of grasshoppers, katydids, and crickets. Michigan State University Extension Bulletin E-2815. Pp. 77. Available online at:

BECKERMAN AP. 2002. The distribution of Melanoplus femerrubrum: fear and freezing in Connecticut. Oikos 99: 131-140.

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. Grasshoppers: Their biology identification and management. Agricultural Research. Available online at:

CHAPMAN RF, JOERN A. 1990. Biology of grasshoppers. John Wiley and Sons. Pp. 563.

HINN JC, NIEDZLEK-FEAVER M. 2001. Spermatophore number transferred increases linearly with copulation duration in Melanoplus differentialis (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Journal of Orthoptera Research 10: 147-152.

PEÑA SRS. 2005. In vitro production of hyphae of the grasshopper pathogen Entomophaga grylli (Zygomycota: Entomophthorales): potential for production of conidia. Florida Entomologist 88: 332-334.

LOMER C, LANGEWALD J. 2001. What is the place of biological control in acridid integrated pest management? Journal of Orthoptera Research 10: 335-341.


AMÉ M, JOSÉ H, RIVAULT C, DETRAIN C, DENEUBOURG JL. 2006. Collegial decision making based on social amplification leads to optimal group formation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103: 5835-5840. 

BARBARA KA. 2000, revised 2005. American cockroach, Periplanta americana Linneaus (Insecta: Blattodea: Blattidae). University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service Document EENY-141 (IN298). Available online at:

BELL WJ, ADIYODI KG. 1982. The American Cockroach. Chapman and Hall, London. Pp. 529.

BELL WJ, ROTH LM, NALEPA CA; FOREWARD BY EO WILSON. 2007. Cockroaches: ecology, behavior, and natural history. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Pp. 230.

BERENBAUM M, SHERROD JP. 1989. Ninety-nine gnats, nits, and nibblers. University of Illinois Press. Pp. 254.

COCHRAN DG. 1995. Toxic effects of boric acid on the German cockroach. Experientia 51:561–563.

EATON ER, KAUFMAN K. 2007. Kaufman field guide to insects of North America. Houghton Mifflin, New York. Pp. 392.

GORDON DG. 1996. The Compleat Cockroach: a comprehensive guide to the most despised (and least understood) creature on earth. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, California. Pp 178.

HERRICK GW. 1914. Insects injurious to the household and annoying to man. Macmillan, New York. Pp. 470.

INWARD D, BECCALONI G, EGGLETON P. 2007. Death of an order: a comprehensive molecular phylogenetic study confirms that termites are eusocial cockroaches. Biology Letters 3: 331-335.

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